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For example, fission track dating measures the microscopic marks left in crystals by subatomic particles from decaying isotopes.

Another example is luminescence dating, which measures the energy from radioactive decay that is trapped inside nearby crystals.

For example, the decay of potassium-40 to argon-40 is used to date rocks older than 20,000 years, and the decay of uranium-238 to lead-206 is used for rocks older than 1 million years.

Radiocarbon dating measures radioactive isotopes in once-living organic material instead of rock, using the decay of carbon-14 to nitrogen-14.

Each original isotope, called the parent, gradually decays to form a new isotope, called the daughter.

Geologists choose a dating method that suits the materials available in their rocks. Measuring isotopes is particularly useful for dating igneous and some metamorphic rock, but not sedimentary rock.

Others measure the subatomic particles that are emitted as an isotope decays.

Some measure the decay of isotopes more indirectly.

At the same time, it has significance as people may be able to understand the order and then decode the era.

The common request of an event of fossils in rock layers got found around 1800 by William Smith.

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