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Farmers* Institutes with which he has had three years* experience as a lecturer in Pennsylvania. Reginald Bu Uer of the University of Manitoba gave permission to use five illustrations in his book, * * Researches on Fungi. CHAPTER XIX.— Rust Fungi 187 General Structure; Forms; Life Cycles; Cytology; Phylogeny; Endophyl- laceae; Coleosporiaceae; Pucciniaceae; Bibliography of Rusts; Auriculariaceaej Tremellaceae (Trembling Fungi). — Symptoms of Disease (Symptomatology) 341 Symptoms of Disease; Discolorations; Shot-holes; Wilting; Necrosis, Dwarfing; Hypertrophy; Replacement; Mummification; Alteration of Position; Destruction of Organs; Excrescences and Midfor ma lions; Exudations; Rotting; Bibliography of Diseases in General. 403 General Consideration; Bibliography of Developmental Mechanice, Sug- gestions to Teachers and Students. special plant pathology CHAPTER XXXIII.— Specific Diseases of Plants 4" General Statement; Principal Publications; List of Common and Important Diseases of Economfic Plants in the United States and Canada Arranged according to Host Plants. — Detailed Account of Specific Diseases of Plants . The classification adopted in this 2 MYCOLOGY treatise is based on that of Engler and Gilg, as published in the seventh illustrated edition of "Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien," Berlin, 191 2, and on that of Wettstein in his "Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik," Leipzig and Vienna, 191 1. Biological Bull., xxix: 87-102, August, 191 5; Zygospores and Rhizopus for Class Use. Io6 MYCOLOGY Buchanan, Estelle I)., and Buchanan, Robert E.: Household Bacteriology, 1914: 66-72. Keene, Mary L.: Cytological Studies of the Zygospores of Spordinia grandis. Kxoc KER, Alb.: Fermentation Organisms, 1903: 170-186. Swingle, Deane B.: Formation of the Spores in the Sporangia of Rhizopus nigri- cans and of Phycomyces nitens. VON Tavel, F.: Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze, 1892: 25-40. von: Handbuch der systematischen Botanik, 1911: 160- 164. : A Preliminary Study of the Germination of the Spores of Agaricus campestris and other Basidiomycetous Fungi. The removal of twigs and branches in the ordinary operations of pruning opens up wounds, some- times of a gaping character.

The arrangement of the text has been suggested by the needs of the classroom and from an acquaintance with similar work in other colleges and universities in America. ' ' The author desires to express his thanks for the uniform courtesy of members of the firm of P. CHAPTER XX.— Fleshy and Woody Fungi 218 Cytology; Dacryomycetaceae; Exobasidiaceae; Hypochnaceae; Thele- phoraceae; Clavariaceae; Hydnaceae; Polyporaceae; Manuals. — Mushrooms and Toadstools 231 Agaricaceae; Development of Fruit Bodies; Cultivation of Mushrooms; Chemistry and Toxicology of Mushrooms; Gasteromycetes; Hymeno- gastraceae; Tylostomaceae; Lycoperdaceae; Nidulariaceae; Key to; Sclero- dermaceae; Sphaerobolaceae; Phallomycetes; Development of Carrion Fungi; Clathraceas; Phallaceas; Bibliography of Eubasidii. — Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes) 258 General Characters; Systematic Position; Sphaeropsidales; Melanconiales; Hypho mycetales. CHAPTER XXIX.— Pathologic Plant Anatomy 354 Restitution; Hypoplasia; Metaplasia. — Pathologic Plant Anatomy (Continued) 364 Hypertrophy; Excrescences; Intumescences; Callous Hypertrophy; Ty- loses; Gall Hypertrophies; H3^erplasia; Homooplasia; Heteroplasia; Callus; Conditions of Callous Formation; Wound Wood; Wound Cork. Where consistent, the classificatory sys- tems of these two books are harmonized and any departures which the student will find from the taxonomic arrangements of Engler and Wettstein have been made to simplify them by the omission of cer- tain group names, or to bring the two systems into Une with the facts as at present known. DE Bary, a.: Comparative Morphology and Biology of the Fungi and Bacteria, 1887: 144-160. and Gilg, Ernst.: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilicn, 7th Edition, 191 2: 37-38. Lafar, Franz: Technical Mycology, II, part i: 1-30, 1903. Materiaux pour la Flore Crypto- gamique Suisse III, Fasc. Sc HROTER, J.: Mucorin^ae, Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, I, Teil i. CHAPTER XII OOSPORE-PRODUCING ALGAL FUNGI ORDER II. The ringing, girdling, or scarification of trees for various purposes, if not properly performed, opens up woimds, so do nails, or spikes driven into the tree for various purposes and the placing of electric cables and telegraph wires along our streets and roads results in the removal of tree tops.

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The keys are given with the anticipation that they will prove useful to the student and teacher who desire exercises in the classification of the fungi: The illustrations have been chosen with care, and credit is given in all cases for those borrowed from other books and monographs. Then, too, the author has found it convenient to replace the name of a family, or order, as given by Engler for one used by Wettstein, or some other author, where such replacement is recommended by American usage, or where etymolog- ically the name is more suggestive of the character of the group, and, therefore, best for the use of students who do not expect to follow out the intricacies of any system of classification. If we look for such an ancestral form among the algae, we find that it must have been related to Vou- cheria, if not identic with that filamentous siphonaceous green alga with reproductive organs, as oogonia and antheridia. such as the beech, or the removal of sheets of birch bark, opens up wounds of vari- ous menace to the health of the tree. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. The corn-smut Us Hlago maydis is a parasite confined exclusively to the maize plant, Zea mays, and to the closely related if not identically the same grass the teosinte; Euchlcena mexicana as pointed out some years ago by the writer^ as proof of the common origin of these two grasses. We are, however, not in the position to name any known red alga as the progenitor of the sac fungi, and it is far more reasonable to search for one in another fungous line, where, in the light of present-day knowledge, there are known forms with sexual organs very much like the sexual organs of simple, known forms of the Ascomycetales. It may happen that early in the spring the peach trees come into bloom. Similar spotting, but less clearly discernible and demonstrable, as the delicate reaction with morning-glory flowers, undoubtedly occurs on leaves and fruits, and the suggestion is made here, that such spots * Harshbe&ger, John W. 294 GENERAL PLANT PATHOLOGY caused by the acidity of raindrops serve repeatedly as the points of entry of parasitic fungi, for there are many leaf spots and fruit spots that show concentric rings of diseased tissue in the earhest lesions pro- duced. A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Wherever maize is cultivated the smut is found associated with it. We are not now in a position to name any known phycomycete as a probable ancestor, though the likelihood is that the original stock possessed phy- comycetous characters, thus attributing a monophyletic origin to them. Fischer, Ed.: Versuch eine systematischen Uebersicht Uber die bisher bekanntem Phalloideen. Then on a cold cloudless night with no wind the temperature sinks below freezing and the partially open flower buds are nipped by the frost. : The Acid Spotting of Morning Glories by City Rain. A fungus, which is stimulated to growth by an acid condition of the cell sap, would find ideal conditions for the commencement of growth by entering areas influenced by acid raindrops. — Traumatism, or mechanic injury, may be of various sorts and the effects are dependent upon the form and severity of the injury. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. Tabulated the principal species are: Exobasidium laccinii on Vacciniuttty Europe, Siberia, America. cordata grows on manure, presumably as a saprophyte. seldom saprophytically as I04 MYCOLOGY Basidiobolus on the feces of frogs. Callus forms above the wounded areas formed by compression. Maintain attribution Tht Goog Xt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Exobasidium rhododendri on Rhododendron^ Europe, America. Non-sexual reproductions is mainly by means of unicellular conidiospores which are discharged forcibly from the ends of tubular conidiophores. Large hailstones sometimes produce bruises on the bark of young trees, as also the bombs shot out of vol- canoes.

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